Diagnosis in Ayurveda
Importance of Diagnosis according to Ayurveda:
रोगमादौ परीक्षेत ततोनन्तरं औषधं ।
ततः कर्म भिषक पश्चात ज्ञानपूर्वं समाचरेत ।।
यस्तुरोगं अविज्ञाय कर्मान्यरभते भिषक।
अपि औषधविधानज्ञः तस्य सिद्धि यद्रच्छया ।।
यस्तु रोगविशेषज्ञः सर्वभैषज्यकोविदः।
देशकालप्रमाणज्ञः तस्य सिद्धिरसंशयं ।।
Ref : (Charak Samhita Su.20/20,21,22)
Means, A Physician should first of all diagnose the disease and then he should select proper medicine. Thereafter, he should administer the therapy applying the knowledge of science of medicine.
A Physician initiated treatment without proper diagnosis of the disease can accomplish the desired object only by chance, even he is well-acquainted with knowledge of medicine does not necessarily guarantee of his success.
On the other hand, the physician who is well-versed in diagnosing diseases, who is proficient in the administration of medicines, who is proficient in the administration of medicines and who knows about the dosage of the therapy that varies from place to place and season to season, is sure to accomplish the desired object.
Diagnostic Methods in Ayurveda:
Before go to the Ayurvedic treatment, one should confirm the diagnosis of his/her illness.
It is divided in two parts as given below,:
- Rog Pariksha ( Examination of a disease)
- Rogi Pariksha ( Examination of a patient)
The Rog Pariksha (Examination of a disease) further subdivided into five categories.
The causative factors of a disease can called as Nidana/Aetiological factors
Purva-rupa (the premonitory symptoms):
Symptoms which manifest themselves before the appearance of the disease
Rupa (the sympotoms of a disease):
Symptoms when fully manifested are called as Rupa.
Upashaya/Anupshaya (factors which can aggravate/suppress the disease):
Such medicines, diets and regimen as bring about happiness either by acting directly against the cause of a disease and/or disease itself or by producing such effects indirectly are called Upashaya and its opposite can called Anupashaya( the alleviating factors)
Samprapti ( pathogenesis):
The pathogenesis or manifestation of a disease with the help of causative factors can call as Samprapti. It is further classified depending upon certain specific characteristics such as; the number of the types of a disease, the dominance factors, the varieties of a disease, the time of manifestation or aggravation of a disease etc.
On the basis of these factors, the physician with piece of mind and unimpaired intellect should understand the disease properly.
The Rogi Pariksha (Examination of a patient) has subdivided in Tri-fold, Six-fold, Eight-fold or Ten-fold examinations by the views of different Maharshis (Spiritual Scientists).
The Tri-fold examination of a patient has given by Maharshi Vagbhata (the author of text book of Ashtanghridayam). According to Vagbhata, the physician should examine the patient by Darshan(inspection), Sparshan(palpation) & by Prashna(history taking).
The Six-fold examination of a patient has given by Maharshi Sushruta (author of text book of surgery /sushruta samhita) in which he described to examine the five causal body elements (Panch Mahabhoota) of a patient and asked for history taking.
The Eight-fold examination of a patient has given by Yogratnakara, in which he asked to examining the patient by; Nadi( Pulse), Mutra( Urine), Malam( Stool), Jihwa( Tongue), Shabdam( Voice), Sparsham( Palpation), Dak (Eye) & Akriti( Physical constitution of body) to get on quick diagnosis of a OPD base patient.
The Ten-fold examination of a patient has given by Maharshi Charak (author of text book of medicine/ charak samhita), in which he asked to check for Prakriti (Body type/ Body constitution), Vikriti (illness), Sara, Samhanan, Satva, Satmya, Aaharshakti (Food intake), Vyayam-shakti( Physical fitness ), Vaya (Age) & Pramana( The quantitative majors) for examining a patient.